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2011年成人高考高起点英语名词复习

添加时间:2011-3-4 15:28:47  浏览次数:827

名词的数

  A、常见的不可数名词

  1、Fluids(流体):

  air空气,smoke烟,water水,oil油,ink墨木,juice果汁,

  rain雨水,tea茶,coffee咖啡,wine酒,beer啤酒

  2、Substances(物质):

  paper纸,glass玻璃,wood木头,iron铁,chalk粉笔,

  fruit水果,meat肉,beef牛肉,mutton羊肉,chicken鸡肉,

  sugar糖,salt盐,rice米,sand沙子,dust灰尘,gold黄金

  3、Abstracts(抽象名词):

  health健康,wealth财富,honesty诚实,friendship友谊,

  wisdom智慧,attention注意力,luck运气,progress进步,

  work工作,room空间,news新闻,information消息,

  love爱,trouble 麻烦,happiness幸福,silence寂静

  4、Subjects(学科):

  physics物理,chemistry化学,mathematics数学,history历史,

  geography地理,English英语,biology生物,music音乐

B、可数名词的复数形式

  1、直接在词尾加-s:如desks,maps,cats,pens cars,farms

  2、以-s,-x,-ch,sh结尾的词加-es :glasses,classes,buses,boxes,foxes,watches,matches,brushes,dishes(例外:stomachs胃)

  3、以-O结尾的词:

  Negroes,heres,potatoes,tomatoes(有生命的名词加-es);

  photos,pianos,kilos,radios,zoos studios(无生命的名词加-es)。

  4、辅音字母+y结尾的,把y变为i再加es :

  city-cities,story-stories,baby-babies,dictionary-dictionaries,

  factory-factories,fly- flies,diary-diaries

  但是,元音字母+y——直接+s toy——toys

  5、以-f,-fe结尾的单词,去掉f,-fe 再加ves:

  knife-knives,wife-wives,life-lives,wolf-wolves,

  thief-thieves,leaf-leaves

  例外:roof-roofs屋顶,belief-beliefs信仰,gulf-gulfs海湾

  safe-safes,handkerchief-handker chiefs手帕

  6、特殊变化:

  man-men,woman→woman,

  child→children,tooth→teeth,

  goose→geese鹅 foot→feet,

  mouse→mice,looker-on→lookers-on 旁观者,

  passer-by→passers-by过路人,

  editor-in-chief→editors-in-chief总编辑,

  man-doctor→men doctors,

  woman-doctor→women doctors,

  fish,deer,Chinese,sheep单复数同形。

C、只有复数形式的名词

  1、下列名词,只有复数形式,只能接复数形式的动词:

  clothes衣服,fireworks烟火,wages工资,thanks谢意,remains残留物,sweets糖果

  2、由相同两部分构成的名词,只有复数形式,只能接复数形式的动词:

  scissors剪刀,glasses眼镜,trousers裤子,shoes鞋,socks袜, gloves手套

  这些名词如表示数量,要以pair为单位,如:

  a pair of shoes一双鞋 two pairs of shoes 两双鞋

  a pair of glasses一副眼镜 two pairs of glasses两副眼镜

  3、某些集合名词,本身即为复数,所以不能加-s,也不能以one,a,every等词来修饰,如:

  this people(×) these peoples(×) these people(√)

  that police(×) those polices(×) those police(√)

  名词的所有格

  名词所有格的构成英语名词所有格有两种:'s属格和of属格。

  (1)'s所有格

  ①单数名词加-'构成,如:

  Hellen's car海伦的汽车;the doctor's glasses医生的眼镜;

  a dog's tail 狗的尾巴;the manager's secreatry 经理的秘书。

  ②复数名词以-s结尾的只加-',不以-s结尾的加-'s,如:

  the girls'school女子学校; ladies'hats女帽;

  the students'Library学生阅览室;Women's club妇女俱乐部;

  Children's toys儿童玩具;men's hats男帽。

  ③复合名词在最后一词后加-'s,如:

  Somebody else's umbrella别人的伴伞;

  my brother-in -law's car我姐夫的汽车。

  (2)of所有格的用法:

  主要用于表示无生命的名词,一般采用“the +所有物+of +(the,that,my —)+ 所有者”的形式,如:

  the door of this classroom这间教室的门;the leaves of the tree树叶;

  the name of our school我们学校的名字,the door of the house,a map of China.

(3)双重属格的用法:

  a friend of +名词所有格or名词性物主代词,主要用来表示人的所有关系,例如:

  a friend of my brother's,two plays of Shakespeare's,

  some children of Mr. Brown's,these ideas of yours,

  those dirty shoes of James'。

  双重属格的名词前不能用the和one来修饰。

  Note:of my own属于我自己的on my own我独自地

  (4)特殊所有格:

  若一样东西为两人共有,后一个人名用所有格,在最后一词后加-'s;如:

  Tom and John's room汤姆和约翰(共同)的房间;

  Lily and Lucy's school莉莉和露茜(共同)的学校。

  如果属于二人分别拥有,则在两个名词之后分别加-'s,且其后名词应为复数。如:

  Mary's and John's pens玛丽和约翰(各自)的钢笔;

  Mike's and Henry's desks迈克和亨利(各自)的书桌;

  John and Tom's room(only one room);

  John's and Tom's rooms(two rooms:one for John and one for Tom)

  「例如」The woman dressed in blue is Mary and Alice's mother.

  You should find what the difference between Mr. Smith's and Mr. Black's cars is.

  (5)在表示“某人家”,“店铺”时,所有格后面的名词常常省略:

  at Mr. Green's(在格林先生家); at my brother's(在我兄弟家);

  at the tailor's(在裁缝店); at the barber's(在理发店);

  at the doctor's(在诊所)

  (6)noun+to:

  I don‘t quite remember the key________the question though I answered it correctly.

  A.of B.to C.for D.about

名词的常用考点

  考点1、牢记六个不可数名词,不可数名词没有复数形式,前面不能用数词,但是可用some,any

  information,weather,fun,progress,advice,furniture,

  a. ________ important information it is!A. What B. What an

  b. ________ nice weather it is today! A. What B. What a

  c. ________ fun it is! A. What B. What a

  d. Physics has made great progress in this century. And so has maths.

  e. The doctor gave my father some advice on how to stop smoking.

  f. She has to clean all the furniture in all the bedrooms in two hours.

  g.It was fun to play on the beach that it attracted countless children.

  [A] such great [B] so great [C] such a great [D] so great a

考点2、有些名词的复数形式可以表示特别的意义

  papers(报纸;文件);works(工厂;著作);looks(外表);

  hairs(几根头发);times(时代);sands(沙滩);

  drinks(饮料);manners(礼貌);arms(武器);

  forces(军队)glasses

  牢记五个名词单复数形式可以表示特别意义的名词

  word/man  difficulty  room  people  population

  a.当word和man用作不可數名词时,前面不加冠词,也不用复数形式时,它们的意义是:word(消息;通知),man(人类)

  Word came that the headmaster would come to talk to us.(消息)

  Please send me word of your arrival.(通知)

  Labor created man.(人类)

  Quite a lot scientists have studied the origin of man in the last century.

  b.have some difficulty in doing sth.

  c.I am afraid that there isn‘t _____left for you two in my car. There are already five people in it.

  A.many room B.any rooms C.any room many rooms

  d……people作集合名词用时,后面的谓语动词总是用复数形式

  The people in the village like the new teacher.

  但是,作“民族”解释时是可数名词,有复数形式:peoples;作“全体公民”解释时,动词用复数形式。

  the peoples of Asia(亚洲各民族)

  The Chinese people are a great people.(中华民族是一个伟大的民族。)

  e.population具有集合名词的一般用法

  A:The population of China is largethan that of India.

  (中国人口比印度多。)

  B.Eighty percent of the population of China are peasants.

  (中国80%的人口是农民。)

考点3、集合名词的数

  一般地说,集合名词只以单数形式出现。常见的有:family,police,cattle,team,people,government,class,group,audience(观众),public(公众),crew(全体船员)等。当这些名词作主语时,若表示一个整体时,谓语动词用单数形式;若表示集体的每一个成员时,谓语动词用复数形式。

  His family is a big family./ The whole family are watching TV now.

  The government welcomes the proposal.(政府欢迎该建议。)

  The government are discussing the proposal.(政府官员正在讨论该建议。)

  注意:

  police和cattle后面的谓语动词总是用复数形式

  Many cattle are kept on the farm.

  Several hundred police are on duty.

  考点4、of+抽象数=相应的形容词

  of+geat+抽象名词=very+相应的形容词

  of+no+抽象名词=not+相应的形容词(or -less,un-)

  这样的抽象名词主要有:importance,value,use,help

  The dictionary is of great use/help.=The dictionary is very useful/helpful.

  The meeting is of great importance.=The meeting is very important.

  Ginseng is of great medicine value. (西洋参具有很高的药用价值。)

  Your advice is of great value to us=Your advice is very valuable to us.

  His suggestion is of no use=His suggestion is not useful.

  That program is of great interest to the children.

  =That program is very interesting to the children.

  但是,of+color/age/height/width常用来表示具有同样的颜色、年龄、高度、宽度等等。

  These two jackets are of the same color.(这两件夹克衫颜色一样。)

  We‘re of the same age.(我们年龄一样大。)

  考点5、to+抽象名词常表示喜、怒、哀、乐

  to one's surprise(令人惊讶地);to one's joy/delight(令人高兴地);

  to one'sdisappointment(令人失望地);to one's shame(令人羞愧地)

  考点6、复合形容词中的名词必须用单数

  eg. two-minute ride seven five-yuan notes

  a nine-foot-tall tree a three-year old三岁的小孩

  a seven-day holiday七天的假期

  a 200-meter-high building二百米高的大厦

  注意名词所有格和复合形容词的用法

  eg.二十分钟的路程 twenty minutes' walk

  a twenty-minute walk

  「例句」Despite the wonderful acting and well developed plot the movie could not hold our________ attention. (CET-1996,1)

  A)three-hours B)three-hour C)three-hours' D)three-hour's

  three-hour为复合形容词,作定语不能加's。另外,复合形容词作定语,其中名词保持单数,故A、C、D都不对。正确答案为B、三个小时的电影也可以表达为:three hours’ movie.

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